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CORNELL 
UNIVERSITY 




COLLEGE OF 

ARCHITECTURE 

LIBRARY 



NE 642.S6Ih66""'"™'*'""'™^ 

Joh" Raphael Smith and the great mezzoti 




3 1924 020 558 668 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924020558668 



GREAT ENGRAVERS : EDITED BY ARTHUR M. HIND 




JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LOUISA 
VISCOUNTESS STOKMONT (ROMNEY) 



m 



C.S. 159 [before 1] 



JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY mezzotint is England's chief 
glory in the history of engraving. In line-engraving and 
etching England had started a century behind the continent 
of Europe, and even then much of the best work produced 
for a considerable period was done by settlers from abroad. With 
mezzotint, too, the initiative came from abroad, for its inventor, 
Ludwig von Siegen, was a German amateur, and most of its earliest 
practitioners were German or Dutch. But very soon after the 
introduction of the new process, England became the chief centre of 
attraction to the best mezzotinters of the period, though it was not 
until the beginning of the eighteenth century that an entirely native 
school thoroughly vindicated the title of la Man'tire Anglaise, by 
which the art was commonly known before the end of the seventeenth 
century. 

Von Siegen's discovery was first taken up by the famous Prince 
Rupert, and for a considerable period after John Evelyn's notice in 
his Sculptura (1662) of the " New way of engraving, or Mezzo 
Tinto, invented and communicated by his Highnesse Prince Rupert," 
fame or flattery assigned to the Prince the actual invention of the 
art. But though the discovery is now known not to have been his, 
he is justly famous in the history of the art for the most magnificent 
of the early mezzotints, the Great Executioner (after Ribera), which 
shows a real flair, and a far finer artistic feeling than anything of 
Von Siegen. It was no doubt Prince Rupert's interest in mezzotint 
when settled in England at the beginning of the reign of Charles II, 
that was the really determining factor in making England the centre 
of the art. 

The first century of mezzotint may be treated in a later volume 
of this series, but in the present place we plunge in medias res, illus- 
trating the period in which it reached its zenith. Van Dyck was 
just too early to be represented in contemporary mezzotint, so that 
the earliest mezzotinters largely reflect the paintings of Lely, 
Kneller, Vanderbank, and the host of lesser lights (chiefly foreigners) 
who still carried on the Van Dyck tradition. But the second part 
of the eighteenth century saw the establishment of a true English 
school of painting, and the great mezzotinters of this period find half 
their glory, and nearly all their popularity, in being the noblest 
translators into the less exclusive medium of engraving of the 
canvases of Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney, and Hoppner. 

5 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

Mezzotint has only rarely been used by the engraver as a means 
of original expression. The absence of lines and the peculiar rich- 
ness and depth of its chiaroscuro make, it the finest medium for the 
reproduction of oil painting, and neither painters nor engravers Ijaye 
been slow to recognise its special mission, . 'i- 

A brief description of the process as in use in the eighteenth 
century .may be some help towards its appreciation. To begin with, 
the result is obtained in exactly the reverse direction to that of all 
the other processes of engraving. The artist, having prepared a 
plate that would print quite dark, proceeds to work out his lighter 
portions. The instrument used to prepare the plate, called the 
rocier, is a piece of steel with curved serrated edge, with thread 
smaller or larger according to the quality of texture required. JMS 
held with its blade at right angles to the plate, and the curved edge, 
rocked regularly over the. whole surface at many angles, causes a 
uniformly indented surface, with a burr, or curving piece of i metal, 
throvvn up at each indentation. A print taken from this would print 
black, much of the rich quality of the tone coming from the burr, as 
in dry-point. Then, with a tool called the scraper, the engraver 
removes those portions of the burr where the lights are to appear, 
working from dark to light. The more the surface, of the grain is 
scraped away, the less will the ink be retained by what remains, and 
if the scraping and burnishing be continued quite to the bottom of 
the indentations, a smooth surface will be left which will hold no 
ink and print white. 

The name of John Raphael Smith has been put at the. head of this 
volume, as to our mind that of the greatest of the mezzotinters of the 
Reynolds period. Other engravers, such as Valentine Green and 
John Jones, may be no less brilliant, but none, except perhaps the 
brothers Ward, shows equal strength and originality. J. R.' Smith 
was himself a fair portrait painter, and in this and his original 
drawings and mezzotints of society genre, he is a thoroughly typical 
representative of the two chief factors in the English school . of the 
late eighteenth century. But his original work is of small importance 
beside his unrivalled power in the interpretation of Reynolds and 
Romney. His female portraits after Romney, one of which stands 
as the frontispiece to this volume, are among the most exquisite 
productions in the whole range of mezzotint. Several of his portraits 
of men, such as Dr. Richard Robinson (after Reynolds), might be cited 
among his strongest achievements, but it is surprising how com- 
paratively small is the market value of the best of these beside the 
6 



JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

more popular full-length portraits of ladies, such as the Mrs. Carnac, 
[xxx) M\A Mrs. Mustns {xxx\). While the former in brilliant state 
might realise about £<,, rare early impressions of either of the latter, 
or of similarly popular portraits, such as Thomas Watson's Lady 
Bampfyldcy or Valentine Green's Ladies JFaldegrave, might be fetching 
many hundreds of pounds. No doubt the eye of the public is set on 
the decorative quality of these magnificent full-lengths, and whatever 
one's judgment of the comparative artistic value of the finest 
mezzotint after Reynolds beside a line-engraving by Diirer, it must 
be confessed that the mezzotint makes by far the more imposing wall 
decoration. 

The enormous prices that have been realised by mezzotint in 
recent years have of course only gone for brilliant impressions in 
perfect condition, and the quality of impression is a more important 
factor with mezzotint than with engravings in any other process 
except dry-point. In fact the rarity of good impressions in the case 
of both mezzotint and dry-point comes from the same reason, the 
delicacy of the burr which gives to both their deep velvety tone. 
Twenty or thirty printings may be quite enough to wear down this 
burr, and leave the later prints as mere ghostly reminders of 
their former glories. In spite of this many of the most famous plates, 
such as J. R. Smith's Mrs. Carnac, and John Jones's Miss Kemble 
(C. S. 42),* have yielded thousands of impressions. The Mrs. Carnac 
in particular, which is still in the possession of Messrs. P. and D. 
Colnaghi, has been reworked from time to time with such skill that 
even some modern impressions are effective. But they have almost 
lost all relationship with the original work, so drastic have been the 
restorations, and their value is negligible on that account. 

Modern photogravure gives marvellous results in reproducing the 
tone of oil-paintings. But as a photo-mechanical process that relies 
on etching for the work on the plate there is a complete absence of 
the rich burr that lends mezzotint its incomparable qualities of 
texture and tone. 

The engravers illustrated in our plates are arranged roughly in 
chronological order, and the two first, Thomas Frye and James 
McArdell, represent the transition period of about 1750. The 
transition- from the fashions of the earlier half of the century to the 
Reynolds period is very remarkable in yichrdsWh Duchess of Ancaster 
after Hudson (11), and his t/lnne Day after Reynolds (iv). 

* A different plate from the one reproduced here as xxix, though that 
also is known, 1 believe, in modern impressions. 

7 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

Valentine Green is, perhaps, the most popular of all the English 
mezzotinters, particularly for his full-length portraits of ladies after 
Reynolds. He is represented at his best in the Duchess of Rutland 
(xix) and Countess of Salisbury (xx), but a very large number of his 
full-lengths are empty in character and too smooth in tone to be 
effective on so large a scale. The Ladies JValdegrave (xxi) is, per- 
haps, his most beautiful print, and far finer in the quality of its tone 
than most of his plates, which often tend to be hard and metallic. 
But none of his works quite attains the variety of tone and certainty 
of draughtsmanship generally shown by Thomas Watson, who is 
best known for his Lady Bampfylde after Reynolds (xxii). Nor 
did Valentine Green at his best produce anything so broad and at 
the same time so delicate in style as the Mrs. Musters of his pupil 
James Walker (xLii). 

John Jones is on the whole the most convincing of the English 
engravers in his method of rendering the qualities of the painter's 
brush. His plates of Miss Kimble after Reynolds (one of which is 
illustrated in xxix) and Mrs. Charlotte Davenport after Romney 
(xxviii) are perhaps his most charming mezzotints. He is rather an 
exception among his contemporaries in engraving far more men than 
women, and his Edmund Burke after Romney (xxvii) is one of the 
most superb examples. We have chosen our illustrations in several 
cases from the interest or beauty of the sitter, as much as from the 
value of the mezzotint, e.g. Fisher's David Garrick (vil) and Laurence 
Sterne (viii) , James Watson's Mrs. Bunhury (Goldsmith's " Little 
Comedy") (x), Finlayson's Elizabeth Gunning, T>uchess of Jrgyll (one 
of the sisters so famous for their beauty) (xv), John Jones's fames 
Boswell (xxvi), J. R. Smith's Mrs. Montagu (the first of the " Blue- 
Stockings) (xxxiv), Marchi's Oliver Goldsmith (xLVi), Doughty's 
2)r. Johnson (xLv), and Charles Turner's Sir Walter Scott (lix). 
Several of the most attractive of all the English mezzotints are 
done by engravers who produced comparatively little, e.g. Doughty's 
Dr. Johnson, Henry Hudson's charming portrait of the unknown 
3idrs. Curtis (xlviii), and Elizabeth Judkin's portrait of the famous 
actress, 3\drs. Abington (xLiii). In fact, mezzotint seems to me an 
art in which lack of real artistic power is easily hidden in the 
delightful results that even unpractised hands can achieve. How 
poor even the greatest of the English mezzotinters can be when 
wandering a little from the regular path is exemplified in the extra- 
ordinary lack of structural coherence of John Jones's View from 
'Richmond Hill, after Reynolds. 



JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

With the Wards we enter on a greater variety of subject, landscapes 
and rustic subjects after Morland becoming almost as numerous as the 
portraits. Moreover both William and James Ward did a con- 
siderable amount of original work, William producing some charming 
fancy subjects and portraits, and James chiefly devoting himself to 
rustic and animal studies. Unfortunately for mezzotint James Ward 
turned almost entirely to painting in his later years. It is more 
especially with the Wards, and the other engravers who worked after 
Morland, that one finds mezzotints printed in colours. In the earlier 
part of the eighteenth century J. C. Le Blon had experimented with 
mezzotint and the three-colour process [i.e. using three or even four 
plates in the printing), but his methods had not been taken up by 
other English artists, and English mezzotints, when printed in 
colour, are practically always printed from the single plate. This 
means of course the laborious process of filling the plate with colour 
between each printing, a very different matter to the washes of 
colour with which late impressions are often tinted to pass as real 
colour-prints. They are more correctly called coloured or tinted 
impressions, not colour-prints, and though real colour-printing is often 
combined with some hand-tinting in the impression, it may be taken 
as a general rule that the less hand-tinting the better the print. 
Colour in the eighteenth century was far more generally used for 
stipple, and here as well as with the mezzotints it is chiefly the 
fancy subjects, and only rarely the portraits, that are found printed 
in colour. 

One of James Ward's plates, the Hoppner Children, is reproduced 
here in an unfinished as well as a completed state (liv and Lv). It will 
serve as a clear demonstration of the mezzotinter's method of scraping 
out his lights from an original black ground. 

With Charles Turner and S. W. Reynolds one reaches a turning- 
point in the history of mezzotint. Both of these engravers produced 
many splendid plates almost equal to the work of J. R. Smith and 
the Wards, but one feels from time to time the beginning of the 
decline. But the deterioration in quality is much more evident in 
Samuel Cousins, who shows a greater tendency to the smooth and 
mechanically laid surface, in which technical finesse entirely fails to 
atone for the loss of the rich deep tones of the greater period. 
Probably Lawrence and his weaker imitators, with their love of glossy 
surfaces, are to blame for the decay in the quality of the tone of 
mezzotint. Something also may be due to the use of steel instead of 
copper for a short period from about 1820, a practice which was for 

9 



GREAT ENGRAVERS ' 

some time advertised as a matter of pride in the inscriptions on the 
plates. But the hardness of surface and power of yielding extensive 
editions, w^hich was its objective, was soon found to be equally well 
served by coating the copper-plate by electrolysis with a thin plating 
of steel, and that is the regular method in use at the present day 
when a copper-plate is put into commerce for a large edition. 

With the decay of portrait, mezzotint was finding a fresh field in 
landscape, and its vitality is shown in the splendid series of plates 
that make up J..M. W. Turner's Liber Studiorum. Turner himself 
did the outline etching for the majority of this series, and generally 
left it to more professional engravers, such as Charles Turner, 
William Say, and Dunkarton, to add the tone by means of mezzo- 
tint on the basis of his monochrome drawings. In a few cases 
Turner .was his own mezzotinter. Apart from the plates Turner 
scraped for the Liber Studiorum, some eleven plates in pure mezzotint, 
commonly called the Sequels to the Liber, were found in his studio at 
his death. Original impressions from these are of extreme rarity, 
but several of them have been printed frorn at later periods. The 
impression we reproduce, the Study of Clouds (lxiii), is one of these, 
pulled by the late Sir Seymour Haden. 

Constable was even more successful than Turner in the repro- 
duction of his landscape by mezzotint. In David Lucas he found 
one of the most gifted of all the English mezzotinters, with an 
extraordinary talent for interpretation. It is remarkable how much 
of the quality of Constable's painting, even to its colour values, is 
preserved in Lucas's plates. 

The most interesting work in modern mezzotint has also been in 
landscape, for it is here that the art is less fettered by tradition. 
The late Sir Seymour Haden and Sir Frank Short have perhaps 
done the best work, but many recent etchers might be cited for 
occasional plates in mezzotint. Some of Sir Frank Short's plates after 
Peter De Wint and after unpublished drawings of the Liber 
Studiorum quite equal the best mezzotints of Turner's contemporaries. 

Nevertheless it has to be confessed that the growth of photo- 
gravure has done its best to kill the art of mezzotint. The general 
public calls for reproductions of pictures, and does not stop to 
think of the quality of the tone, nor of the value of interpretation in 
the hands of a real artist-engraver. What it demands is the fidelity 
of the photographer, not a print which is in itself a real work of art. 
But in spite of these obstacles there are still a few mezzotinters 
(apart from the original landscape etchers) who remain faithful to 
lO 



JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

the old tradition. And it can at least be said that many of them far 
surpass the average quality of mezzotints produced- by the followers 
of Lawrence and Landseer. For the sake of this remnant, and for 
the sake of fostering discernment in the public taste, everything 
should be done to keep the art alive. In spite of its glories 
being largely in the past, we would be the last to speak of it as 
dead. 




II 



BOOKS OF REFERENCE 

Chelsum, James. A History of the Art of Engraving in Mezzotinto. 
Winchester 1786 

Laborde, Leon de. Histoire de la Gravure en Mani^re Noire. Paris 
1839 

Rawlinson, W. G. Turner's Liber Studiorum : a Description and a 
Catalogue. London 1878. (2nd ed. 1906) 

Chaloner Smith, John. British Mezzotinto Portraits. 4 vols. London 
1883. (The Standard Catalogue for British Mezzotinters until the 
beginning of the Nineteenth Century) 

Whitman, Alfred. The Masters of Mezzotint. London 1898 
Valentine Green. London 1902 
Samuel William Reynolds. London 1903 
Samuel Cousins. London 1904 
Charles Turner. London 1907 

Frankau, Julia. John Raphael Smith, his life and works (with a portfolio 
containing facsimile reproductions of fifty examples). London 190Z 
William Ward, A.R.A., James Ward, R.A., their lives and works. 
London I 904 

Goodwin, Gordon. James McArdell. London 1903 

Thomas Watson, James Watson, Elizabeth Judkins. London 1904 

Davenport, Cyril. Mezzotints (Connoisseurs' Library). London 1904 

British Museum. Guide to an Exhibition of Mezzotint Engravings, 
chiefly from the Cheylesmore Collection. London 1905 




12 



LIST OF PLATES 

The following abbreviations are used : C. S. = Chaloner Smith ; 
R. = Rawlinson ; W. = Whitman (see Books of Reference) 

John Raphael Smith. Louisa 
Cathcart, Viscountess Stormont 
(Romney). Frontispiece. C. S. 
159 [before i] 

Thomas Frye. Queen Charlotte, 
Wife of George III. i. C. S. 
I [before 1] 

James McArdell 

Mary Panton, Duchess of Ancaster 
(Hudson). II. C. S. !, I 

Lady Mary Coke (Ramsay), iii, 
C. S. 43 [before i] 

Anne Day, afterwards Lady Fen- 
houlet (Reynolds), iv. C. S. 
53 [before 1] 

Richard Houston. The Man with 
the Knife (Rembrandt), v. C. S. 
146 [between i and 11] 

Edward Fisher 

Hon. George Seymour Conway, 

afterwards Lord George Seymour 

(Reynolds), vi. C. S. 10 [i] 

David Garrick between Tragedy and 
Comedy (Reynolds), vii. C, S. 
20, I 

Laurence Sterne (Reynolds), viii. 
C. S, 56, I 

John Dixon, William Robert 
Fitzgerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster 
(Reynolds), ix. C. S, 23, i 

James Watson 

Mrs. Catherine Bunbury (Reynolds), 
X, C. S, 18, I 



Mrs. Collier (Reynolds), xi. C. S. 
32, I 

William Pether. Artists drawing 
from a statuette of a gladiator 
(Wright). XII. C. S. 45, I 

Richard Earlom. The Life School 
of the Royal Academy (ZoiFany). 
XIII. C. S. I [between i and 11] 

Interior of the Pantheon, London 
(Brandoin). xiv. C. S. 45 

John Finlayson. Elizabeth Gun- 
ning, Duchess of Argyll (Read). 

XV. C. S. I, n 

V.\LENTiNE Green 

Mrs. Maria Cosway (Maria Cosway). 

XVI. C. S. 29 [i] 

Valentine Green (Abbott), xvii. 
C. S. 57, 11 

Sir Joshua Reynolds (Reynolds), 
xviii. C. S. no, I 

Mary Isabella Somerset, Duchess of 
Rutland (Reynolds), xix. C. S. 
115,1 

Emily Mary Hill, Countess of 
Salisbury (Reynolds), xx, C. S. 
116, I 

The Ladies Laura, Charlotte Maria, 
and Anne Horatia Waldegrave 
(Reynolds), xxi. C. S. 133, i 

Thomas Watson 

Catherine Moore, Lady Bampfylde, 
(Reynolds), xxii. C. S. 2, i 

13 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

George White, pavior and artist's 
model, as "Resignation" (Rey- 
nolds). XXIII. C. , S. 43 [be- 
fore i] 

William Dickinson 
Sir John Fielding (Peters)^ xxiv. 
C. S. 20 [before i] 

Elizabeth Houghton, Lady Taylor 
(Reynolds), xxv. C. S. 80 

John Jones 

James Boswell (Reynolds), xxvi. 
C. S. ,8 [before i] 

Edmund Burke (Romney). xxvii. 
C. S. ll|beforei] 

Mrs, Charlotte Davenport (Romney). 
xxviii. C. S. 17. 

Miss Frances Kemble (Reynolds). 

XXIX. C. S. 45 

John Raphael Smith 

Mrs. Elizabeth "Carnac (Reynolds). 

XXX. C. S. 31, I 

Katherine Mary and Thomas James 
Clavering (Romney). xxxi. C. S. 
41 [between r and 11] 

Emma Lyon, Lady Hamilton, as 
"Nature " (Romney). xxxii. C. S. 
76 [before i] 

Lady Carolirie Montagu (Reynolds). 
xjcxiii.- C. S. no, I 

Mrs. Elizabeth Montagu (Rey- 
nolds). XXXIV. C. S. 112, 1 

Mrs. Sophia Musters (Reynolds). 
XXXV. C. S. I zo, I 

Hon. Mrs. Henrietta North 

^Romney). xxxvi. C. S. 122, 11 
14 



Mrs. Rhiladelphia Payne-Gallwey 
(Reynolds), xxxvii. C. S. 1 3 3; i 

Miss Srieyd as " Serena " (Romney). 
xxxviii. ■ C. S. 1 90 [i] 

Hon. Mrs. Eliza Stanhope (Rey- 
nolds), xxxix. G. S. 158, I 

Louisa, Vicountess Stormont. C. S. 
159 [before i]. See Frontispiece 

Love inher Eyes sits playing (Peters). 
XL. C. S. 187, I i 

James Walker j 

Margaret Caroline, Countess of 

Carlisle (Rpmney). xli.. C, S. 2 

[before i] 

Mrs. Sophia Musters (Romney). 
xLii. C. S. -10, II 

Elizabeth Jxjdkins. Mr?. Abington 
(Reynolds), xliii, C S. i,,i; 

Charles Howard Hodges. , Mrs. 
Williams-Hope (Reynolds), xtiv. 
C. S. 18, I. ; 

William Doughty. Dr. Samuel 
Johnson (Reynolds), xlv. .C. S. 
2,1. 

Giuseppe Marchi. Oliver Gold- 
smith (Reynolds), xlvi. C. S. 
7," 

George Keating. Ge'orgiana 
Spencer, Duchess of Devonshire 
(Reynolds), xlvii. C, ,S. 3,1 

Henry Hudson. Mrs. Curtis 
(Walton). XLViii; C. ,S. I 

Gainsborough Dupont. The Elder 
Princesses (daughters of George 
III) (Gainsborough), xlix. G. S 
5, I 



JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 



William Ward 

The Misses Marianne and Amelia 

Franicland (Hoppner). l. C. S. 

38.1 
A Carrier's Stable (Morland). li. 

J. F. 50, III 

The Pledge of Love (Morland). lii. 
J. F. 222 

James Ward 

Mrs. Elizabeth Margaret Hibbert 
(Hoppner). liii. C. S. 26, i 

The Hoppner Children (Hoppner). 
Liv. C. S. 27. Unfinished state 

The same. LV. Fourth, and finished 
state 

Miss Frances Vane (afterwards Mrs. 
Taylor) as Miranda (Hoppner). 
Lvr. J. F. 289 (W. Ward) 

The Bird-keeper's Repast. lvii. 
C. S. 44. J. F. 9 



Charles Turner 

Lady Louisa Manners (Hoppner). 
Lviii. W. 347, 11 

Sir Walter Scott (Raeburn). lix. 
W. S14 

Samuel William Reynolds 
Elizabeth Burrell, Marchioness of 

Exeter (Lawrence). lx. W. 

87,11 

George Clint. Mrs. Siddons 
(Lawrence), lxi 

J. M. W. Turner 

Ben Arthur, from the " Liber Studi- 
orum." Lxii. R. 6<), first published 
state. Etched by Turner,finished in 
mezzotint by Thomas Lupton 

Study of Clouds, lxiii. jin un- 
published plate, from the series 
generally called the " Sequel to the 
Liber Studiorum " 

David Lucas. Spring (Constable). 

LXIV 



The title-page border is from a title-page to Graglia's "Martial," engraved 
by Bartolozzi after Cipriani (1783). 

The tail-pieces are from woodcuts by Luke Clennell after Thomas 
Stothard for Roger's " Pleasures of Memory " 18 10. 



15 



I. THOMAS FRYE. QUEEN CHARLOTTE, WIFE OF GEORGE 
C.S. I [before i] 
Mezzotint engraver, and painter on china ; b, Dublin, 1710 j d. i' 
w. in London 




J. R. S. I 



II. JAMES McARDELL. MARY, DUCHESS OF ANCASTER 
(HUDSON). C.S. I, I 
Mez?otint engraver ; b. Dublin, ab. 1729 ; d. 1765 ; w. in London 



IV. JAMES McARDELL. ANNE DAY, AFTERWARDS LADY 
FENHOULET (REYNOLDS), C.S. 53 [before i] 



VI. EDWARD FISHER. THE HON. GEORGE SEYMOUR CONWAY, 
AFTERWARDS LORD GEORGE SEYMOUR (REYNOLDS). 
C.S. lo [i] 
Mezzotint engraver; b. Ireland, 1730; d. ab. 1785 ; w. in London 





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VIII. EDWARD FISHER. LAURENCE STERNE (REYNOLDS). 
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J. R. S. i 



X. JAMES WATSON. MRS. CATHERINE BUNBURY (REYNOLDS). 
C. S. i8, 1 
Mezzotint engraver ; b. Ireland, 1739 (.'') ; d. 1790 ; w. in London, 



XL JAMES WATSON, MRS. COLLIER (REYNOLDS). C.S.32,1 




«iT •*^4 



XII. WILLIAM PETHER. ARTISTS DRAWING FROM A STATU- 
ETTE OF A GLADIATOR (WRIGHT). C.S. 45, i 
Mezzotint engraver ; b. Carlisle, 3b. 17^8 ; d. 1821 ; vy. in ItOti^on^ 
and Bfis^p} 



XIII. RICHARD EARLOM. THE LIFE SCHOOL OF THE ROYAL 
ACADEMY (ZOFFANY). C.S. i [between i and ii] 
Mezzotint and stipple engraver, and etcher ; b. 17^3 ; d. 1 822 ; 
w- in London 



XIV. RICHARD EARLOM. INTERIOR OF THE PANTHpON 
J.ONDON (BRANPOIN). C.S.|5 



XV. JOHN FINLAYSON. ELIZABETH GUNNING, DUCHESS OF 
ARGYLL (READ). C. S. i, ii 
Mezzotint engraver; b. ab. 1730; d. 1776 j w. in Londgn 



XVI. VALENTINE GREEN. MRS. MARIA COSWAY (MARIA 
COSWAY). C. S. 29 [i] 

Mezzotint, stipple, and aquatint engraver; b. 1739; d. 1813; 
w. in London 



XVII. VALENTINE GREEN. PORTRAIT OF THE ENGRAVER 
(ABBOTT). C. S. 57, II 




J. R. s,.3 



XVIII. VALENTINE GREEN. SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS (REYNOLDS). 
C.S. no, I 



MARY, DUCHESS OF RUTLAND 
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 115, i 



XX. VALENTINE GREEN. EMILY, COUNTE§§ OF SALISBURY 
(REYNOLDS). C. &. ii6, \ 



XXI VALENTINE GREEN. THE LADIES WALDEGRAVI^ 
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 133, i 



XXII. THOMAS WATSON. CAROLINE, LADY BAMPFYLDE. 

C. S. 2, I 

Mezzotint and stipple engraver | b. 174.3 (or 1750 f) ; d. 1781 , 
yv. in Londoij 



JiXIII. THOMAS WATSON. GEORGE WHITE, PAVIOR AND 
ARTIST'S, ■ MODEL, AS " RESIGNATION." C. S. 43 
f before ij 



XXIV. WILLIAM DICKINSON. SIR JOHN FIELDING (PETERS). 
C. S. 20 [before i] 

Mezzotint and stipple engraver ; b. 1746 ; d. 1823 ; w. in London, 
and Paris 



'..«»««»i!lHltt«8-W. I" .'"Uii ■ 




XXV WILLIAM DICKINSON. ELIZABETH, LADY TAYLOR 
(REYNOLDS). C.S. 80 




I. R. s. 4 



XXVI. JOHN JONES. JAMES BOSWELL (REYNOLDS). C. S. 8 
[before i] 

Mezzotint and stipple engraver; b. ab. 1745 ; d. 1797 ; w. in 
London 



XXVII. JOHN JONES. EDMUND BURKE (ROMNEY). C. S. ii 
[before i] 




eL 



XXVIII. JOHN JONES. MRS. CHARLOTTE DAVENPORT (ROMNEY). 
C, S. 17 



>, \N 




XXIX. JOHN JONES. MISS FRANCES KEMBLE. C.S.4S 



^^^- J°,?^...T^^^^'^^^ ^^^™- MRS. ELIZABETH CARNAC 
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 31, i 

Mezzotint and stipple engraver, painter, and draughtsman ; b. Derby, 
1752 ; d. 1812 ; w. in London ' 



XXXI. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. KATHERINE MARY AND 
THOMAS JOHN CLAVERING (ROMNEY), C. S. <;.! 
[between i and ii] 



XXXII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. EMMA, LADY HAMILTON AS 
" NATURE " (ROMNEY). C. S. -jf^ [before i] 



XXXIII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LADY CAROLINE MONTAGU. 
C.S. no, I 




j'-iin-t-ejutBU, tivj • 



j. R. S. 5 



XXXIV. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS, ELIZABETH MONTAGU 
(REYNOLDS). C. S. 112, i 



XXXV. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS. SOPHIA MUSTERS 
(REYNOLDS;. C. S. 120, i 



XXXVI. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. THE HON. MRS. HENRIETTA 
NORTH (ROMNEY). C.S. 122, n 



XXXVII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MRS. PHILADELPHIA PAYNE- 
GALLWEY (REYNOLDS). C. S. 133, i 



XXXVIII. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. MISS SNEYD AS " SERENA " 
(ROMNEY). C. S. 190 [i] 



XXXIX JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. THE HON. MRS. ELIZA 
STANHOPE (REYNOLDS). C. S. 158, i 



XL. JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH. LOVE IN HER EYES SITS PLAYING 
(PETERS). C. S. 187, 1 



XLI. JAMES WALKER. MARGARET CAROLINE, COUNTESS OF 
CARLISLE (ROMNEY). C. S. 2 [before i] 
Mezzotint engraver ; b. 1748 ; d. 1808 ; pupil of Valentine Green; 
w. in London, and for eighteen years after 1784 in St. Petersburg, 
as engraver to the Empress Catherine 




J. F. s. 6 



XLII. JAMES WALKER. MRS. SOPHIA MUSTERS (ROMNEY) 
C. S. 10, II 




J- 1 V '.il^i'ti: ,^i1^im' .ffi^ 



..^-.^ 



XLIII. ELIZABETH JUDKINS. MRS. ABINGTON (REYNOLDS)- 
C. S. 1,1 
Mezzotint engraver ; w. ab. 1772-1775, in London 



XLIV CHARLES HOWARD HODGES. MRS. WILLIAMS-HOPE 
(REYNOLDS). C. S. i8, i 
Mezzotint engraver; b. 1764; d. 1837; pupil of J. R. Smith; 
W, in England, and (after ab. I79|) in Amsterdam 



XLV. WILLIAM DOUGHTY. DR. SAMUEL JOHNSON (REY- 
NOLDS). C. S. 2, I 
Mezzotint engraver ; d. 1782 ; b. at York ; w. in London 



XL\'I. GIUSEPPE MARCHI. OLIVER GOLDSMITH (REYNOLDS). 
C. S.7,11 
Mezzotint engraver ; b. ab. 1735 ; d. 1808 ; w. in Rome, and 
London ; an assistant of Sir Joshua Reynolds 



XL VII. GEORGE KEATING. GEORGIANA, DUCHESS OF DEVON- 
SHIRE (REYNOLDS). C. S. 3, i 
Mezzotint and stipple engraver ; w. ab. 1784-1797, in Ireland 
and London 



XLVIII, HENRY HUDSON. MRS. CURTIS (WALTON). C. S. i 
MeJ-zotint engraver ; w. ab. 1782-1793, in England 



XLIX. GAINSBOROUGH DUPONT. THE ELDER PRINCESSES, 
DAUGHTERS OF GEORGE III (GAINSBOROUGH^. 
C. S. 5, I 

Mezzotint engraver; b. 1767; d. 1797; nephew of the Paincer; 
w. in London 




J. R. s. 7 



L. WILLIAM WARD. THE MISSES MARIANNE AND AMELIA 
FRANKLAND (HOPPNER). C. S. 38, i 
Mezzotint and stipple engraver ; b. 1766 ; d. 1826 ; pupil of J. R. 
Smith ; w. in London 



LI. WILLIAM WARD. A CARRIER'S STABLE (MORLAND). 
J. F. 50, in 



LIl. WILLIAM WARD. THE PLEDGE OF LOVE (MORLAND). 

J. F. 222 




r 1 1 '■. i'l.KiMJK or ■ i ,ov K 



LIII. JAMES WARD. MRS. HIBBERT (HOPPNER). C.S. 26, 1 

Mezzotint engraver, and painter ; b. 1769 ; d. 1859 ; pupil of his 
elder brother W. Ward ; w. in London ; the latter part of his life 
entirely devoted to animal and landscape painting 



/ // 



LV. JAMES WARD. THE HOPPNER CHILDREN (HOPPNER). 
C. S. 27. FOURTH, AND FINISHED STATE 

LIV. JAMES WARD. THE HOPPNER CHILDREN (HOPPNER). 
C. S. 27. UNFINISHED STATE 




> 
1-4 







LVI. JAMES WARD. MISS FRANCES VANE (AFTERWARDS .MRS 
TAYLOR) AS MIRANDA (HOPPNER). J. F. ' 289 (WV WARD) 



LVII JAMES WARD. THE BIRD-KEEPER'S REPAST. C. S. 44- 
J. F. 9 



LVIII. CHARLES TURNER. LADY LOUISA MANNERS (HOPPNER) 
W. 347, II 

Mezzotint, stipple, and aquatint engraver ; b. 1774 ; d. 1857 ; 
w. in London 




]. K. S.8 



LIX. CHARLES TURNER. SIR WALTER SCOTT (RAEBURN). 
W.514 



LX. SAMUEL WILLIAM REYNOLDS. ELIZABETH, MARCHIO- 
NESS OF EXETER (LAWRENCE). W. 87, 11 
Mezzotint engraver, and water-colour painter ; b. 1773 ; d. 1835 ; 
w. in London, and (for some time after about 1826) in Paris, engraving 
numerous subjects after Gericault, Horace Vernet, Delaroche, and 
other French painters 



LXI. GEORGE CLINT., MRS. SIDDONS (LAWRENCE) 

Mezzotint, crayon, and line engraver ; b. 1770 ; d. 1854 ; w. in 
London ; best known for his theatrical portraits 



LXII. J, M. W. TURNER. BEN ARTHUR, FROM THE '"LIBER 
STUDIORUM." R. 69. FIRST PUBLISHED STATE. 
ETCHED BY TURNER, AND FINISHED IN MEZZOTINT 
BY THOMAS LUPTON 

James Mallord William Turner. Landscape painter, etcher, and 
mezzotint engraver ; b. 1775 ; d. 1851 ; w. in London 
Thomas Goff Lupton. Mezzotint engraver; b. 1791 ; d. 1873; 
w. in London 



LXIII. J. M. W. TURNER. STUDY OF CLOUDS. AN UNPUB- 
PUBLISHED PLATE, FROM THE SERIES GENERALLY 
CALLED THE " SEQUEL TO THE LIBER STUDIORUM " 



LXIV. DAVID LUCAS. SPRING (CONSTABLE) 

Mezzotint engraver; b. 1802; d. 1881 ; w. in London; almost 
exclusively devoted to the reproduction of John Constable's 
landscapes 



PRINTED ATT THE BALLANTYNE PRESS LONDON 




LONDON MCMXI 



WILLIAM HEINEMANN 



GREAT ENGRAVERS 

A SERIES OF REPRODUCTIONS OF THE GREAT MASTERS 
OF ENGRAVING WITH SHORT INTRODUCTIONS BY 

ARTHUR M. HIND 

Author of " A Short History of Engraving and Etching " 
Bound in Paper Boards. Price 2j6 net. per volume. 

THE Publisher announces a series of volumes, each volume devoted 
to a particular master or group of engravers, and containing 64 
pages of illustration, an introduction, short bibliography and 
biographical notes, and in the case of the monographs, a complete 
or select list of the works of each artist. 

The aim of this series is to present the whole history of engraving 
and etching in illustration. Chief among the artists represented are the 
painters like Diirer, Rembrandt and Van Dyck, whose original engravings 
and etchings on copper hold an independent place of equal artistic 
importance beside their larger works in painting. Then follow some of 
the master interpreters, engravers like Marcantonio and John Raphael 
Smith, whose work is as convincing in its own medium as the originals they 
reproduce. The whole will form an adequate and comprehensive survey 
of one of the finest and most admirable of the arts. 

The following 6 volumes will be issued during 191 t : — 

DtJRER 

His Engravings and Woodcuts. 

YAN DYCK 

and the great Engravers and Etchers of portrait of the Seventeenth Century 
(including the complete etched work of Van Dyck, and examples by 
Rembrandt, Bolswert, Pontius, Muller, Suyderhoef, Van Dalen, Blooteling, 
Lievens, Hollar, De Moor, Leoni, Morin, Mellan, Regnesson, Nanteuil, Van 
Schuppen, EdeUnck, Masson, Faithorne, Lombart, Loggan and the Brevets). 

YTATTEAU, BOUCHER 

and the French Engravers and Etchers in the earlier XVIII Century 
(including all Watteau's original etchings, and examples by Boucher, 
Simonneau, Thomassin, Audran, Aveline, Cochin, Crepy, Dupuis, Favannes, 
Joullain, Lebas, Liotard, Renard Dubos, Scotin, Tardieu, Cars, Caylus, 
Daulle, Demarteau, Mercier, Gillot, Natoire, Hutin, Oudry, Gravelot). 

JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

and the great English Mezzotint Engravers of the time of Reynolds 
(including examples by Frye, McArdell, Houston, Fisher, Dixon, the 
Watsons, Pether, Earlom, Finlayson, Valentine Green, Dickinson, Jones, 
Walker, Elizabeth Judkins, Hodges, Doughty, Marchi, Keating, Hudson, 
Gainsborough Dupont, the Wards, Charles Turner, S. W. Reynolds, Clint, 
J. M. W. Turner and David Lucas). 

[Continued on page 4. 



GRli:AT ENGRAVERS 




SPECIMEN ILLUSTRATION 



GOYA 

His Aquatints, Etchings, and Lithographs. 



ITALIAN 



MANTEGNA 

AND THE 

PRE-RAPHAELITE ENGRAVERS 



Including many early Florentine Engravings by Finiguerra and anonymous 
craftsmen of the time of Botticelli (examples of Nielli, and selections from 
the series of Planets, Prophets and Sibyls, Otto prints, Dante's " Divine 
Comedy," and the "Triumphs of Petrarch"), anonymous prints of North 
Italy (e.g., some of the so-called "Tarocchi Cards"); other subjects 
after Mantegna, Leonardo da Vinci and Bramante ; and examples by 
the following engravers : Pollaiuolo, Robetta, Giovanni Antonio da Brescia, 
Zoan Andrea, Nicoletto da Modena, Jacopo de' Barbari, Girolamo 
Mocetto, Benedetto Montagna, Giulio and Domenico Campagnola, and 
the master of J. B. (with the bird). 

Other volumes will be announced in due course. 




ORDER FORM 



To Mr. 



Booltaeiler. 



£ 



Kindly send me the following 
volume.... of " THE GREAT ENGRAVERS," 
by Arthur M. Hind, published by William 
Heinemann, 21, Bedford Steeet, London, W.C., 
price 2\6 net. volume, for which I enclose 
d. 



• DURER JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH 

.VAN DYCK GOYA 

.WATTEAU, BOUCHER ...MANTEGNA 



(Signature) 

(Address^ 



LONDON: WILLIAM HEINEMANN